National safety regulations
Japan's representative safety-related laws and regulations include the Industrial Safety and Health Act, Industrial Safety and Health Regulations, and Comprehensive Safety Guidelines for Machinery.
The figure below shows the relationship and enforceability of these laws and regulations.
Laws and regulations include laws, government ordinances, ministerial ordinances, and notices and notifications issued by each ministry.As stipulated in Article XNUMX, this law was established to ensure the safety and health of workers for employers, and matters that must be complied with in order to prevent industrial accidents. is stipulated.In addition, specific matters associated with the enforcement of laws are indicated by government ordinances, ministerial ordinances, notices, notifications, etc.In particular, those that stipulate risk assessment and machine safety are the "Occupational Safety and Health Regulations" in the Ministerial Ordinance, and the "Guidelines for Comprehensive Safety of Machinery" in the guidelines.
Industrial Safety and Health Act
The Industrial Safety and Health Act is a law aimed at ensuring the safety and health of workers in the workplace and promoting the creation of a comfortable working environment.As for the content related to machine safety, it stipulates regulations on machines, hazardous materials, harmful substances, safety and health education for workers, etc.This law was amended in 2006 in order to eliminate the risk of occupational accidents in the workplace in advance. have become.
Industrial Safety and Health Act (Article 28-2)
Chapter IV Measures to Prevent Dangers or Damage to Health of Workers
(Surveys, etc. to be Conducted by Business Operators)
Article XNUMX-XNUMX Employers shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, avoid risks or hazards, etc. caused by constructions, equipment, raw materials, gas, steam, dust, etc., or caused by work behavior or other duties (Article XNUMX-XNUMX). (Excluding dangers or harmfulness, etc. due to substances specified by Cabinet Order under Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX and substances subject to notification prescribed in Article XNUMX-XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX), and based on the results, In addition to taking measures pursuant to the provisions of this Act or orders based thereon, employers shall endeavor to take necessary measures to prevent workers from being in danger or suffering from health problems. (The rest is omitted. Risk assessment of chemical substances is stipulated in a separate section.)
XNUMX. The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall, in addition to what is provided for in paragraphs XNUMX and XNUMX of the preceding Article, publicize necessary guidelines for the appropriate and effective implementation of the measures set forth in the preceding paragraph.
(XNUMX) The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare may, in accordance with the guidelines set forth in the preceding paragraph, provide necessary guidance, assistance, etc. to business operators or their organizations.
In addition, as shown below, when and how to conduct the investigation of hazards or hazards (risk assessment) described above is described in Article 24-11 of the Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health. I'm here.
Occupational Safety and Health Regulations
Industrial Safety and Health Ordinance Article 24-11
Article XNUMX-XNUMX Investigation of dangers or hazards, etc. in Article XNUMX-XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX of the Act shall be conducted at the following times:
(i) when installing, relocating, changing, or demolishing a building;
(XNUMX) When newly adopting or changing facilities, raw materials, etc.
(XNUMX) When a work method or work procedure is newly adopted or changed.
(iv) In addition to what is listed in the preceding three items, when there is a change, or there is a possibility of a change, in the danger or harm caused by buildings, equipment, raw materials, gas, steam, dust, etc., or due to work behavior or other duties.
In addition, the Industrial Safety and Health Law requires "strengthening the safety and health management system."The targets are workplaces that are obliged to appoint or establish general safety and health managers, safety committees, health committees, etc.As shown below, Articles 21 to 23 of the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance stipulate whether or not a safety (health) committee should be established for the applicable establishments and the proceedings should be recorded.
Industrial Safety and Health Ordinance, Articles 21 to 23
1 Matters related to the declaration of policies on safety and health
2 Investigation of dangers and harms and measures to be taken based on the results
3 Matters related to the preparation, implementation, evaluation and improvement of safety and health plans
4 Employers shall inform workers of the outline of the proceedings without delay each time the safety and health committee is held.
In other words, the important contents of the risk assessment, risk reduction measures, and P/D/C/A related to health and safety must be left on the agenda and made available to employees.
In the Ordinance on Occupational Safety and Health, Part XNUMX Safety Standards Chapter XNUMX Prevention of Dangers Caused by Machines contains provisions concerning the specific structure and operation of machinery, so be sure to check these when using related machinery. please.
For example, that chapter has the following articles on industrial robots:
Section XNUMX Industrial Robots
(Prevention of Dangers While Driving)
Article XNUMX-XNUMX When operating an industrial robot (when operating an industrial robot for teaching, etc., and when operating an industrial robot, the employer shall perform the work prescribed in the following article). (Except when operating an industrial robot in some cases.), if there is a risk of danger to workers due to contact with the industrial robot, it is necessary to install a fence or enclosure to prevent the danger. measures must be taken.
As described in this section, if there is a possibility of contact with an industrial robot during operation, a protective fence or the like is required.
In addition, there are regulations regarding operations during teaching and inspection work.
Guideline for Investigation of Danger or Harm (Public Notice No. 18, March 3, 10)
This guideline is a guideline that specifically indicates the requirements for risk assessment (including risk reduction measures) for machinery and equipment used by businesses in accordance with Article 28-2 of the Industrial Safety and Health Act.In general, the following contents are shown.
1. What is a “Danger or Harm Investigation”?
Investigation of hazards or hazards, etc. means risk assessment, which finds hazards or hazards (hazards or sources of danger) related to workers' work before disasters occur, and systematically considers countermeasures. It is a series of flow to do.Businesses must implement risk reduction measures based on the results of the risk assessment.